The couple, who have two children, announced last year they were splitting after 20 years of marriage. In a new interview with Tatler, Ms Vine blamed politics for putting their union under pressure.
The outspoken columnist added that Brexit was “another huge strain on the marriage”.
Mr Gove was a key figure in the Vote Leave campaign in the 2016 referendum.
Ms Vine told Tatler: “My whole life fell away. I didn’t speak to many close friends. And that was another huge strain on the marriage.
“Marriage can take strain, but it cannot take that much.”
Ms Vine said that “politics creates a toxic environment and puts immense pressure on families and marriages”.
She added: “That’s really at the heart of why Michael and I are getting divorced.
“It’s not because we hate each other, it’s because I can’t look after my family and myself and be a wife of politics.”
The columnist rejected affair rumours, insisted the top Tory’s “only mistress was politics”.
She said: “The mistress wins in the end. It’s all about making sure she is happy.
“In my case, despite all the rumours, his only mistress was politics.
“That’s what he is in love with. He is genuinely in love with politics.”
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Ms Vine also admitted that she never wanted Mr Gove to be prime minister.
She said of the Cabinet minister: “My ulterior motive throughout my entire life was to stop my husband being prime minister because I can’t think of anything worse.”
A joint spokesman for Mr Gove and Ms Vine announced last July that the couple were “in the process of finalising their divorce”.
A friend of the pair said they had “drifted apart” and “no-one else is involved”.
The friend added: “This is a difficult and sad decision for Michael and Sarah after 20 years of marriage.
“It is an entirely amicable separation and there is no-one else involved.
“They have drifted apart over the past couple of years but they remain friends. Their absolute priority is the children.”
The February issue of Tatler is available on newsstands and via digital download on Thursday 6th January.